- varieties of deterministic causal claims
- complex causality
2. Probabilistic causal claims
- complexity \(\to\) probabilistic claims
- recognizing probabilistic causal claims
- conditional effects
March 11, 2021
Causality may be deterministic… there are exact conditions for when effect always/never happens.
But in reality, it is almost always complex
See, e.g. Gerber et al 2008
Does it make sense to say that “being shamed” is a necessary condition for voting?
Does it make sense to say that “being shamed” is a sufficient condition for voting?
We are often unable to fully describe deterministic rules for what causes produce an effect
are claims that the presence/absence of a cause \(C\) makes an effect \(E\) more or less likely to occur. Or cause \(C\) increases/decreases effect \(E\) on average