January 15, 2018
Set up column break
Causal claims include a causal verb. E.g.:
"causes", "influences","makes happen", "increases", "decreases", "results in", "was necessary for", etc.
No explicit statement that one thing causes another
correlation \(\neq\) causation
Does this claim imply that, if we could directly change one thing, then we would see a change in the other?
"Countries with more women in the legislature have more protections for womens' reproductive and marital rights."
"The entry of more women into a legislature results in more legal protections for womens' reproductive and marital rights."
Build on descriptive, causal claims
also must invoke some value about what is desirable/undesirable
|Descriptive||…about a thing in the world||how many, is an X||no cause stated||none||yes|
|Causal||…about effect of one thing on another||causes, increases, influences||y would not happen without x||descriptive||yes|
|Prescriptive||…about what should (not) be done||should, too much/few, enough||what ought to be||descriptive,causal||no|
Always includes a value judgment
A claim someone bases on their opinion
A claim someone bases on personal experience
A claim that we can't persuade someone to drop
People can vehemently assert an opinion that is contrary to evidenc
Personal experience can be factually incorrect
Stubbornness to evidence doesn't make it irrelevant