April 4, 2018

Review

Concepts, Variables, Measures

How are they related/different?

Concepts, Variables, Measures

What are dimensions of a concept?

Concepts, Variables, Measures

What are the levels of measurement?

Validity

What does validity imply about relationship between concept and variable/measure?

Reliability

What does validity imply about relationship between concept and variable/measure?

Measurement Error

Compare/contrast random error and systematic measurement error

Sampling

What is an inference?

Sampling error/bias

What is random sampling error? What is sampling bias?

Why do they happen?

What are solutions?

Causal Inference

What is fundamental problem of causal inference?

What is counterfactual in terms of potential outcomes?

Causal Inference

Causal Inference

What is the indepedent variable?

What are dependent variables when cause is present/absent?

What is the causal effect for an individual case?

Which values are counterfactual?

Causal Inference

Comparative Method

What is the empirical prediction of the comparative method?

What must be true of two compared cases to find evidence in support of X causes Y?

Correlation

What is empirical prediction for a causal claim that is tested by correlation?

Statistical Significance

What is a p value?

How is it related to statistical significance?

Spurious Correlation

What is direction of bias induced by confounding variable?

Spurious Correlation

What is an interceding variable?

Does it induce spurious correlation?

What is an antecedent variable?

Does it induce spurious correlation?

Solutions to Spurios Correlation

What is adjustment?

How does adjustment/conditioning solve spurious correlation differently than experiments?