October 22, 2021
They are the “rules of the game”:
Horowitz’s account of ethnic parties and ethnic outbidding:
But do other kinds of institutions other than voting rules matter?
Two ethnic groups divided by Zambia-Malawi border.
Even when comparing villages just across the border from each other
Despite recognizing same cultural differences in both countries…
Malawi: Much smaller country…
Zambia: Much larger country…
In 1960s, Language/Region was politically salient ethnic cleavage
Between the 1970s and 1980s, tribal divisions were more important.
In the 1990s, language/region became the more salient divide.
Between 1972 and 1990, Zambia was a one-party state. Elections were held within the ruling party.
Before 1972 and after 1990, Zambia had multi-party competition.
Changing the focus of competition from national to local changes the relevant ethnic demography (Posner 2005)
With one-party rule, only demography of constituency matters:
With multi-party competition, national demography matters: