November 23, 2018
Success of non-violence depends on violence backfiring
Audiences (domestic/international) must know about violent repression
Audiences must know victims were nonviolent
Keck and Sikkink define them as:
those actors working internationally on an issue, who are bound together by shared values a common discourse with voluntary, reciprocal, and horizontal patterns of communication and exchange of information and services.
They are transnational insofar as they cross national borders
They are advocacy insofar as they are organized around causes based on principles and norms, rather than material "interests"
They are networks insofar as they are not hierarchical, formal organizations
May contain highly varied members:
Can work if:
In boomerang pattern and in non-violence, activists need to attract a "bystander audience":
Tactics used to gain media attention:
Activists can take specific events, stories to stand in symbolically for the broader target of protest.
Use material threats to compel action:
Use moral threats to compel action:
Put pressure on actors who have made moral commitments to keep them