September 26, 2018
difficult and contested, but for our purposes:
violence: action in which perpetrator regards inficting pain, suffering, fear, distress, injury, maiming, disfigurement, death as intrinsic, necessary or desirable means to the intended ends.
coercion: using violence or the threat of it to induce people to act or behave other than they would.
off-the-path behavior: when the behavior we observe is systematically influenced by potential, but untaken and thus unobserved actions
e.g.: coercion involves off-the-path behavior because we may not see violence since its threat ensures that people (nearly) always comply.
forms of violence in which an organization/individual regularly engages
killing, torture, displacement, rape, robbery, kidnapping/imprisonment, etc.
which people or social groups are made the targets of specific repertoires of violence
ethnic groups, genders, political groups, combatants, etc.
violence against an individual because of specific allegations about their behavior or actions
assassinations, disappearance of political activists, etc.
violence against individuals based on their membership in a social group.
This kind of violence is connected to social boundaries: violence happens along the boundary because it targets people based on the categories they are labelled with
ethnic cleansing; supporters of a political party; shelling cities with ethnic majorities
violence against individuals without regard to individual behavior or membership in social categories
how a repertoire of violence is performed
killing by firing squad, massacre using knives, bombing, torture to death
the count or rate of victimization among specific groups in the population
fraction of police shooting victims that are African American
Selective violence is often used to produce prevent cooperation with an enemy or to induce cooperation with the perpetrator.
But there is no guarantee this message is correctly delivered
No an exhaustive list:
other people/groups who commit violence (peers/rivals)